Roger Cousinet 1881 la pédagogie de projet

     Roger Cousinet (1881, Arcueil, France - 1973, Paris, France) est un pédagogue français, pionnier de l’éducation nouvelle en France.

Roger Cousinet est né en 1881 (année de mise en place des lois Ferry) dans une famille bourgeoise. Il passe son bac à 17 ans, puis prépare l'École normale supérieure pendant 3 ans mais ne passe pas le concours. Il obtient une licence ès lettres en 1903.

Il devient alors instituteur. Il participe à l'élaboration de tests pédagogiques et commence, sous la direction de Durkheim, une thèse sur la vie sociale des enfants. En 1910, il est nommé inspecteur primaire : à ce titre il a la responsabilité d’une centaine d’écoles publiques.

Il est mobilisé en 1914, et blessé pendant la guerre.

A partir de 1920, en tant qu'inspecteur, il instaure la méthode active dans sa région, et expérimente les principes de sa méthode de travail libre par groupes. Ces expériences sont mal vues par sa hiérarchie, en particulier quand Cousinet propose, à l’imitation de Tolstoï, la parution d'un revue composée de textes d’enfants, L’oiseau bleu.

Parallèlement il est pendant toute cette période très actif dans le mouvement d'éducation nouvelle, participant et organisant des congrès, publiant ses travaux et ceux des autres pédagogues.

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, sa carrière d'inspecteur terminée, il enseigne la pédagogie à la Sorbonne. C'est à partir de cette époque qu'il rédige la plus grande partie de ses livres.

En 1946, il crée avec François Chatelain l'École nouvelle de la Source à Meudon, et l'association l'École Nouvelle Française.

Il meurt le 7 avril 1973 à Paris.

Les premiers travaux de Cousinet portaient sur la vie sociale des enfants. Pour lui l'échange social joue un rôle essentiel dans la construction de la pensée de l'enfant. L'école devrait donc s'appuyer sur cette vie sociale pour organiser les apprentissages, au lieu de s'épuiser à la brider.

Il met donc au point une méthode dans laquelle les enfants peuvent choisir entre différentes activités préparées pour eux et s'organiser en groupe pour les réaliser. Ces activités sont réparties en "activités de création" où les enfants sont libres de leurs choix, et en "activités de connaissance".

Ces activités de connaissance consistent d'abord en travaux d'observation portant sur un thème scientifique, historique ou géographique. Le groupe observe, expérimente, note ses observations et rédige une fiche d'observation collective.

Selon Roger Cousinet, le plus grand profit que les enfants retirent d’une pareille scolarité, c’est d’avoir certes appris beaucoup de choses, mais c’est surtout d’avoir appris à apprendre.

Cette méthode préfigure la pédagogie de projet.

 

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