la réussite éducative comme l'échec scolaire

La réussite éducative tout comme l’échec scolaire, sont liés à de multiples facteurs dont principalement :

 - le rendement de l’élève.

- Son concept de soi.

- Les relations avec les camarades.

- Les conséquences à long terme de la variable que constitue l’âge etc.…….

                                                       Le redoublement

 Le redoublement n’entraîne pas des effets positifs, n’est pas aussi efficace qu’on le souhaiterait et même avoir, selon plusieurs auteurs, des effets indésirables.

                                                                 Motifs

 Le redoublement vise : 1. donner la chance à l’élève de faire des acquisitions qui ne l’ont pas été durant l’année.

                                     2. acquérir une plus grande maturité

                                     3. La volonté de permettre à l’élève de connaître des succès ainsi de lui éviter de subir un échec à long terme.

                                                                Constats

 Les doubleurs ont généralement des résultats supérieurs au cours de l’année doublée. Les résultats baissent par la suite. Deux ans après l’année doublée les résultats des doubleurs sont aussi faibles que les résultats des élèves faibles qui eux avaient été promus, et ce, même si les doubleurs étaient plus âgés que les autres.

 

Effets négatifs liés au redoublement :  

                                                 -décrochage scolaire (abandon).

                                                 -perte de l’estime de soi.

                                                 -perte de motivation.

                                                 -une moins bonne adaptation scolaire.

                                                 -difficultés à se faire des amis.

                                                 -difficultés qui hypothèquent leur vécu scolaire.

                                                 -longueurs de retard sur leurs amis.

                                                 -une baisse d'intérêt pour l'école, pas d'effet sur la maturation.

                                                 -un grand stress.

 

 Quelques solutions de remplacement au redoublement :    

                                                   - l’enseignement individualisé

                                                  - programmes de récupération.

                                                  - techniques de motivation.

                                                  - extension des heures de classe.

                                                  - les cours durant l’été.

 Dans l'ensemble, bien que le redoublement soit de plus en plus remis en question, aucune solution miracle n'existe pour le remplacer. Une chose est certaine : il est utile de faire de la prévention et du dépistage afin d'intervenir avant que l'élève n'en arrive à redoubler. Il faut agir sur plusieurs facteurs à la fois et le faire en concertation, au sein d'une équipe qui implique tant le personnel de l'école que les parents et le jeune lui-même.

 Les écoles qui ont un taux élevé de redoublement sont de tendance plus bureaucratique et les enseignants semblent travailler plus isolément.

Au contraire, dans les écoles où le taux de redoublement est faible, les enseignants collaborent avec les autres et tiennent compte des différences individuelles. Le redoublement n’a plus de sens,

Dans la balance pédagogique il semble évident que les inconvénients relatifs au redoublement sont bien plus nombreux que les avantages. Les solutions de remplacement au redoublement n’ont guère plus de sens. Vouloir changer le redoublement sans changer ses conceptions de l’apprentissage ne donne plus grand-chose. Il faut plutôt changer sa façon de voir l’apprentissage et sa façon d’enseigner et cela demande du temps.          

                                                                              On

                                          ne change pas

                                        de façon de voir

                                           et de faire

                                             du jour

                                         au lendemain.

                                                    

     

 

A voir dans la rubrique "redoublement 2":                                         

                                  

                                                            a) Nativistes.

  

                                                            b) Environnementalistes :

         

 

 

 

                                              1. curatifs.    2. correctifs.     3. interactionnistes

 

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